Eye Anatomy

Sunday, May 26, 2019 by Nisha Gupta, MD

This first post will start with some basic anatomy.

eye diagram external

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1 - Lids: The eyelids are made up of the thinnest skin on our body. There are several muscles that control the eyelid movements. There are several glands that are in the eyelids that provide oils to keep the eyes lubricated.

2 - Orbit: This is the opening of the skull where the eye sits. The pocket is made up of several bones that protect the eye.

3 - Extraocular muscles: There are six muscles that attach to the outside of the eye and allow it to move and rotate.

eye diagram

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4 - Sclera: This is the white part of the eye that covers most of the eye. The muscles attach to the sclera.

5 - Conjunctiva: This is a thin, clear tissue over the sclera and underneath the eyelids.

6 - Cornea: This is the clear part in the center of the eye. It focuses light and allows it to pass through to the back of the eye.

7 - Anterior chamber: This is the space behind the cornea and in front of the iris. It is filled with a fluid called aqueous humor. This fluid is produced constantly and contributes to the pressure of the eye.

8 - Iris: This is the colored part of the eye. The muscles in the iris are affected when drops are put in the eye to dilate the pupil (make the pupil wider).

9 - Pupil: This is the small, dark hole in the center of the eye that light passes through.

10 - Lens: This is an oval shaped part of the eye that sits behind the pupil and iris. It changes shape and bends light to focus images. It is held up by fibers called zonules.

11 - Posterior chamber: This is the space behind the lens. It is filled with a gel-like substance called vitreous humor, which provides nutrients to the eye.

12 - Retina: This is the lining in the back of the eye. It contains cells called photoreceptors that take light and transfer signals to the optic nerve.

13 - Optic nerve: The nerve is a bundle of fibers that lead from the back of the eye to the brain. It takes the information processed in the back layer of the eye to the brain.

14 - Macula: The macula is a small area of the retina where our central vision comes from.

15 - Choroid: This is the layer of blood vessels that sits under the retina and provides it with nutrients.

Be sure to check back next month to learn more about the eye!

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